Borgias Played Critical Role in Protestant Reformation, Renaissance, Colonialism, Columbian Exchange

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eK6t8VpuFQg&t=19s In this video, Ryan Reeves, (PhD Cambridge) an Associate Professor of Historical Theology at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, explains why the Borgia dynasty is, after more than 500 years, "remembered even today as something of a soap opera." https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ItLou92CsEM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MpY1_iCUUa8 Popularized by a three-season TV series on various streaming services, the Borgias had a reputation … Continue reading Borgias Played Critical Role in Protestant Reformation, Renaissance, Colonialism, Columbian Exchange

Italian Americans Were Once Discriminated Against Almost As Much As African Americans

One can understand why Italian-Americans still cherish Columbus Day. They faced "vicious bigotry, reluctant acceptance" when they first came to America and achieved a significant political victory and the beginning of mainstream acceptance in 1892 when Columbus Day was first declared, Brent Staples writes in The New York Times. "Darker-skinned southern Italians endured the penalties … Continue reading Italian Americans Were Once Discriminated Against Almost As Much As African Americans

Columbus Day: Still Worth Celebrating?

Some American states and localities still observe a holiday around October 12 every year to Christoffa Corombo‘s contribution to world exploration. But in other places, it has become Indigenous People's Day. Click. The national consensus that Columbus was an unmarred hero has been lost. Debate: Is Columbus Day Worth Celebrating? Give 10 reasons for, and 10 reasons … Continue reading Columbus Day: Still Worth Celebrating?

1491: America and Europe Before Columbus

In this National Geographic documentary from 2016, "History books traditionally depict the pre-Columbus Americas as a pristine wilderness where small native villages lived in harmony with nature. But scientific evidence tells a very different story: When Columbus stepped ashore in 1492, millions of people were already living there. America wasn't exactly a "New World," but … Continue reading 1491: America and Europe Before Columbus

Taino Indians, Who Columbus Met and Enslaved, Still Exist

Long thought to be lost to history, the Taino Indians of the Caribbean and Puerto Rico who Christopher Columbus described and enslaved in the 1490s, still exist, according to journalist Robert Poole in Smithsonian magazine. Acknowledging that 85 percent of the Taino did perish, primarily from smallpox and other diseases, Poole interviews self-identified Taino who … Continue reading Taino Indians, Who Columbus Met and Enslaved, Still Exist

Debating Columbus, Using Critical Thinking Skills, Understanding How Columbian Exchange Transformed East and West

High school students now tend to think of historical figures in reductive terms. Christopher Columbus, good or bad? Good because he had the courage to be an explorer. Bad because he did not respect Native Americans, wanted to dominate and subjugate them. His PR was better than he was, a student says: "He didn't really … Continue reading Debating Columbus, Using Critical Thinking Skills, Understanding How Columbian Exchange Transformed East and West

800-1600 North American What If’s

North American history prior to the arrival of the permanent European colonists in the 1600s remains in the vapors. We know about major cultures such as the Inkas and major events such as the smallpox epidemic that wiped out 90 percent of the Native American population. Imagine how the continent might easily have developed differently. … Continue reading 800-1600 North American What If’s

Was Columbus’s Discovery of America Inevitable?

Was the discovery of America by Columbus in 1492 inevitable? Of course not. He could have been killed or lost at sea. History cannot depend on just one fragile individual. But European colonization probably was inevitable, unless much of Europe was wiped out in a plague or Chinese explorers beat them to colonization. Discussion on … Continue reading Was Columbus’s Discovery of America Inevitable?

If Cortes Was Killed, Aztecs Probably Would Have Survived

Spanish Conquistador Hernán Cortés was inspired as a boy by the tales of Christopher Columbus discovering a new world to seek his own adventures in the West. He barely escaped death in 1519, by discovering a conspiracy to kill him. His dying would have led to defeat of this Spanish invasion, giving Aztecs time enough to regroup. The … Continue reading If Cortes Was Killed, Aztecs Probably Would Have Survived